Sani Haruna, L. A. Sani, I. Gambo, M. S. Mohammed, B. S. Aliyu


The  present  investigation  was  carried  out   to   study  the  Physicochemical  properties  of  gum  exudates  from   Azadirachta  indica,  Boswellia  dalzieli.  Anogeissuss   leiocarpus and   Sterculia  setigera.  Physicochemical  properties  of  these  gum  exudates  were  investigated  to  assess  the  economic  value  and  utilization  in  pharmaceutical,  Ethno-medicine   and  food  industries   as   substitute  to  gum  Arabic. From  the  results  it  was  observed  that,  Sterculia  setigera  have  significantly  (P≤0.05)  recorded  the  highest  values  in  all  the  physicochemical  parameters   which  is  followed  by   Boswellia  dalzielli  in  protein    nitrogen  content  and  viscosity,  while  Aindica   in  nitrogen,  swelling  index  and  viscosity  respectively.  From  the  result,  Anogeissus  leiocarpus  significantly  recorded  the  lowest  values  in  all  the  physicochemical  parameters.  Atomic  absorption  spectrometer  was  used  to  determine  the  mineral  content  of  the  gum  exudates.  Results  indicated  that,  all  the  gum  exudates  were  found  to  contain  Magnesium (Mg),  Calcium  (Ca)  Iron  (Fe),  Sodium (Na)  and  Potassium  (K).  Heavy  metals  such  as  Cadmium (Cd),   chromium  (Cr)  were  not  detected  in  all  the  gum  samples.  While  Lead (Pb) and  Zinc  (Zn)   were  detected  in  a  very  minute  quantity.  Results indicates  that,  the  gum  exudates  possess  a  good  physicochemical  properties  similar  to  gum  Arabic,  which  indicated  the  possibility  of  using  these  exudates   as  substitutes  to  many  other  gums.  Due  to  the  remarkable  similarity  in  the  physicochemical  properties  of  gum  exudates  of  gum  Arabic  and  the  gum  of  the  plants  in  this  study  more  investigations  are   needed   to  study  the  functional  and  rheological  properties   so  as  to  be  considered  as  the  main  substitute  of  other  gums.

Full Text:



Abu baker A. Tahir A, and Salah Elkhair, M.K (2007). Effect of tree and nodule age on some physicochemical properties of gum of Acacia senegel L) Wild. Sudan research journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 3(6): 866-870.

Adeyanju O, Olatoyinbo, F. A., Lajide L., Adesemuyi, M.F., Ewaoche, A.E and Plavec J. (2016). Characterization and Utilization of Sweietnia mycrophyylla exudate Gum as an excipient in drug Formulation. Journal of Pharmace Chemistryutical and Applied Chemistry 2, No. 1, 1-11 (2016)..

Bhoj, R.S., Sakshi, D. and Mahtab, Z. S. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of Natural edible Gums. Worlad journal of pharmaceutical sciences. ISSN (Print): 2321-3310: ISSN (Online):2321-3086.

Brindha, T. and Mallika, J. (2015). GCMS analysis of naturally occurring gum exudates of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. International journal pharmaceutical chemistry . ISSN:2249-734. Doi:10.7439/ijpc.

Degnew, Y. and Fikremariam, H. (2017). Assessment of physicochemical properties of gum Arabic of commerce from Acacia Senegal found in different localities of Ethiopia. World news of Natural Science WNOFNS 12. 33-42. EISSN 2543.

Degnew, Y., Mulugeta, Leenih and Sisay Feleke (2009). Characerization and quality of gum Arabic from naturally grown Acacia senegel (Linne) wild trees in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. Food Hydrocolloids 23(1): 175-180.

Eiman A, and Hageltayeb M. (2016). Physicochemical properties of gum from Neem tree (Azadirachta indica). Dspace J. S. P.V.I. Retrieved online:

Elfatih, A.H and Wadood A. (2010). The characterization of Sterculia gum (Karaya) in Sudan. University of African Journal of Science (UAJS). Vol. No 18-26

Elmquist (2013). The vulnerability of traditional Agroforestyr system: A comparison of the gum Arabic livelihood strategy before the 1984 drought to that of the present

Gindaba, J. and Nigatu L. (2007). Potential distribution, ethnobotany and tapping procedure of gum producing Acacia specie in the Somali region, southeastern Ethiopia. East Africa journal of science vol.1(1) 69-78.

Goyal, P. and Kaushik, P. (2015). Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari (Guggulu): A rich source of natural gum and resin and its potential in combating microbial resistance against antibiotics. International journal of herbo medica vol. 2(1) 28-36.

GRIN (2017). Azadirachta indica: Germ plasm resource information Network. United State Department Of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved June 2017

Issah, J. A. Malik A. A. and Muhammad E. O. (2014). Physicochemical characterization of the Albizia Amara gum. ARPN journal of science and technology. Vol. 4(8).

Jani, G. K., Shah, D., Prajapati, V., Jani, V. (2009). Gum and Mucilages: versatile expicients for pharmaceutical formulations. Asian journal of pharmaceutical science. 4 (5): 308-322.

Joseph K.L, Chemuku K. and Fredric, D.O.O. Assessment of physical properties of gum Arabic from Acacia senegel varieties in Baringo District Kenya (2010). Researchgate. Online: httpps://

Ken, F. (2019). Tropical Data Base: retrieved online

Mann, A. Yahaya, Y. and Bonson, G.O. (2008). Phytochemical and bacterial screening of Anogeissus leiocarpus against some microorganisms associated with infectious wound. African Journal of microbiology Research vol. 2. pp 060-062

Margaret, S. (1988). Flowering plants of west Africa. Cambidge university press.

Mokwunye, M.U. B. and Aghughu, O. (2010). Restoring Nigerias lead in gum Arabic production: Prospect and Challenges. Report and Opinion. 2(4): 7-13. ISSN: 1553-9873

Okojie, G. K., Osuide, M. D., Aighbokian, A. (2010). A study of some physicochemical characteristics of Cashew gum exudates Anacardium occidentale. Advance Natural and applied sciences Research vol. 8 pp 259-263. ISSN-1597 0299.

Rabeea, M.A.D, Aarif H.E., Misni M., Elfatih A.H., Mohammed E. O. (2018). Characterization and functional properties of some natural Acacia gums. Journal of the Saudi society of Agricultural Sciences 17,241-249.

Robbins, S R. J. (1998). Gum Arabic: A review of recent trends in selected market for water soluble gums. Oversea Development Natural Resources Institute Bulletin 103, 18-33

Semia, E. A, Babiker, E.M and Karamalla, A.K (2009). Analytical studies on the gum exudates from Anogeissus leiocarpus. Pakistan journal of Nutrition 8(6):782-786.

Siddiq N.E (1996). Nitrogen and specific rotation as quality indices for gum Arabic derived from A. senegel (L) wild. Msc thesis University of Khartuom Sudan.

Sunil, G. and Sonali, N. (2014). Natural gums and its pharmaceutical application. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Resarch, 3(1):112-121.

Vincent, C.O. (2009). African tropical plant gums: Grossly unexploited carriers or adjuncts in drug delivery systems. Biopolymers in drug delivey: Recent Advances and challenges, 7-26.

Yusif, A. K. (2011). Studies on some physicochemical properties of the plant gum exudates of Acacia nilotica, Acacia Senegal, and Acacia nilotica JORIND 9(2): ISSN 1596-8308.


  • There are currently no refbacks.