Abdoulie Momodou Tekanyi, Caleb Zakka Kaatpo, Aliyu Danjuma Usman


Loudness is a subjective measure of how loud an audio signal is perceived. Due to commercial
pressures loudness has been exploited in broadcasts to attract and reach viewers and listeners.
Sudden changes in loudness between television channels and programs are significant causes of
nuisance for the consumers. With the transition from analogue to digital TV, loudness related
issues are on the rise hence, the need for objective and accurate techniques for digital broadcast.
The measurement of perceived loudness is difficult yet an important task. Many research efforts
have been introduced for objective measurement and equalization of the loudness of audio
channel or program in order to facilitate program delivery. In this paper, broadcast contents
were examined to discover where loudness occurs in a program and how to achieve equal
average loudness between broadcast programs. A modified scheme was developed based on a
standard set by ITU- Radio and European Broadcasting Union by incorporating a feed forward
loudness control (FLC) mechanism and an adaptive parameter configuration (APC) scheme for
the purpose of addressing loudness in long and short form contents.
Key Words: Loudness, Audio Signal, Long Form Content, Short Form Content, Audio/Loudness
Normalization, Program Transition.

Full Text:



Binaural Rendering of Multi-Channel Audio Contents” AES Convention, Paris.

Broadcasting Program. Paper presented at the IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS), 2014 International Conference on.

Dominic W., Hagen W., Russell D. M and Mark D. P (2017). Estimating the loudness balance of musical mixtures using audio source Separation. Workshop on intelligent music production, Sanford, uk.

EBU (2014). R128-s1-2016, “Loudness parameters for short-form content (advertisements, promos, etc.)”(European Broadcast Union, Geneva).

Fenton E and Steven .M, (2017). Audio Dynamics Towards a Perceptual Model of Punch. University of Huddersfield Publication

ITU, “ITU-R BS.1770-3: Algorithms to measure audio programme loudness and true-peak audio level,” Tech. Rep., International Telecommunication Union, 2014.

Lee Y.H., Chong-Sang .C, and Kim.J.W (2015). Automatic Loudness Control Based on Program Loudness Budget. Intelligent Image Processing Research Center Korea Electronics Technology Institute Gyeonggi, Korea

Lee Y.H., Chong-Sang .C, and Kim.J.W (2016). Low Delay Automatic Loudness Control for Broadcasting Services”, Intelligent Image Processing Research Center Korea Electronics Technology Institute Gyeonggi, Korea

Lee, S., Baek, B., & Kim, C. (2014). A Study on Audio Levels and Loudness Standard for Digital

Pires, L. d. S., Vieira, M. N., &Yehia, H. C. (2017). Automatic loudness control in short-form content for broadcasting. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(3), EL287-EL292.

Ponsot E, Déjardin.H and Roncière.E(2016) “Controlling Program Loudness in Individualized

Recommendation ITU-R BS.1770-4 (10/2015), “Algorithms to measure audio program loudness and true-peak audio level”. International Telecommunication Union Convention, Geneva, 2017.

Vyas.A. Kannao.R and Bhargava.V.(2014). Commercial Block Detection in Broadcast News Videos. A Publication of Prithwijit GuhaDept. of EEE IIT Guwahati Assam 781039, India.

Ward J. D. Reiss, and Athwal C (2012). Multi-track mixing using a model of loudness and partial loudness. The Proceedings of the 133rdAudio Engineering Society Convention

Ward.D and Reiss.J.D, “Loudness Algorithms For Automatic Mixing”, Proceedings Of The 2nd Aes Workshop On Intelligent Music Production, London, Uk, 2016

Zimmer Sebastian (2017). An approach to assess loudness and dynamics with Web Audio native nodes. Cologne Center for eHumanities Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Köln, Germany, a publication of Queen Mary University, London.


  • There are currently no refbacks.