Aliyu M. Umar, H. I. Nock


Control of malaria is highly dependent on accurate identification of Plasmodium species infecting, because of their variability in terms of sensitivity to drugs and susceptibility to the immune system. Therefore a survey of plasmodium species present in Katsina State was carried out from 2009 to 2014 to determine the distribution of Plasmodium sporozoites in Anopheline mosquito vectors in some areas of Katsina State, Nigeria. Anopheles mosquitoes were caught indoors using the Pyrethrin spray sheet method and were subjected to VecTest, using Dipstick assay. Zone A (Southern Katsina) recorded more P. falciparum and P. malariae than Zone B (Central Katsina) which in turn recorded more than Zone C (Northern Katsina). P. falcifarum was the most preponderant in Zone A, having the highest of 163 at Dandume and its lowest was 40 at Daura.  There was no significant difference between P. falciparum and P. malariae within the zones (p<0.05, F=6.79).  No P. vivax 210 nor P. vivax 247 were encountered during the current study.  There was a very high significant difference between P. falciparum and P. malariae isolated from An. gambiae and An. arabiensis within the zones (p <0.05, F=161.44).  There is a very high significant difference between malaria sporozoites isolated from An. gambiae s.s. than in An. arabiensis or An. funestus s.s. nor An. brucei (p <0.05, F=161.44).  An. gambiae s.s recorded the highest number of P. falcifarum (190) and  P. malariae ( 289), while An. quadrimaculatus had the lowest for both species. The highest infections with Plasmodium m

Full Text:



Alaba, O. A. and Alaba, O. B. (2010). Malaria in Rural Nigeria: Implications for the Millennium Development Goals. The Epidemiology of Malaria in Nigeria. Malaria Journal, 8-13. http://www.malariajournal.com

Appawu, M.A., Bosompem, K.M., Dadzie, S., McKakpo, U.S., Anim-Baidoo, I., Dykstra, E., Szumlas, D.E., Rogers, W.O., Koram, K. and Fryauff, D.J. (2003). Detection of malaria sporozoites by standard ELISA and VecTestTM dipstick assay in field-collected anopheline mosquitoes from a malaria endemic site in Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 8(11): 1012 – 1017.

Brady, O.J., Godfray, H.C.J., , P.A., Tatem, A.J., Gething, P.W., Cohen, J.M., McKenzie, F.E., Perkins, T.A., Reiner, RC., Tusting, LS., Sinka, ME., Moyes, CL., Eckhoff, PA., Scott, TW., Lindsay, SW., Hay, SI and Smith, DL. (2016). Vectorial capacity and vector control: reconsidering sensitivity to parameters for malaria elimination. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 110(2):107-117. https///doi.org.10.1093/trstmh/trv113

Culleton, R.L, Mita, T., Ndounga, M. Unger, H., Cravo, P.V., Paganotti, G.M., Takahashi, N., Kaneko, A., Eto, H., Tinto, H., Karema, C., D’Alessandro, U., do Rosario, V., Kobayakawa, T., Ntoumi, F., Carter, R. and Tanabe, K. (2008). Failure to detect P. vivaxin West Africa by PCR species typing. Malaria Journal, 7:174. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-174

Ezenduka, C.C., Falleiros, D.R. and Godman, B. (2017). Evaluating the treatment costs of uncomplicated malaria. Pharmacoecon Open, 1(3):185-194. Doi:10.1007/s41669-017-0021-8

Fong, M.Y., Lau, Y.L., Chang, P.Y. and Anthony, C.N. (2014). Genetic diversity, haplotypes and allele groups of Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia. Parasites & Vectors, 7:161

Retrieved from: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/161

Fanello, C., Petrarca, V., Della Torre, A., Santolamazza, F., Dolo, G., Coulibaly, M., Alloueche, A., Curtis, C.F., Toure, Y.T. and Coluzzi, M. (2003). The pyrethroid knock-down resistance gene in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali and further indication of incipient species within An. gambiae s.s. Insect Molecular Biology, 12: 241–245.

Gautret, P., Legros F., Koulmann, P., Rodier, M.H., and Jacquemin, J.L. (2001). Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria in France: geographical origin and report of an atypical case acquired in Central or Western Africa. Acta Tropica, 78(2):177-181.

Hayakawa, T., Arisue, N., and Udono, T. (2009). Identification of Plasmodium malariae, a human malaria parasite, in imported chimpanzees. PLoS ONE, 4 (10):e7412.Retrieved: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007412

IGNtake (2011). Outbreak of malaria in Katsina State, Nigeria. IGNtake.com. Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria in France: geographical origin and report of an atypical case acquired in Central or Western Africa. Acta Tropica, 78(2):177-181.

Katsina State Ministry for Land and Survey (KSMLS) (2010). Katsina State map.

Keiser, J., Utzinger, J., Tanner, M., de Castro, M.C., Singer, B.H., Maltese, M.F., Bos, R., Bartram, J. and Haller, L. (2005). The effect of Irrigation and Large Dams on the burden of malaria on global and regional scale. American Journal of Tropicical Medicine and Hygiene, 72(4): 392-406).

Krief, S., Escalante, A.A., Pacheco, M.A., Mugisha, L., André, C., Halbwax, M., Fischer, A., Krief, J.M., Kasenene, J.M., Crandfield, M., Cornejo, O.E., Chavatte, J.M., Lin, C, Letourneur, F., Grüner, A.C., McCutchan, T.F., Rénia, L., and Snounou, G. (2010). On the Diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from bonbos. PloS Pathology, 12;6(2):

Kulwichit, W., Rosenthal, P. J. and Chadee, D. D. (2000). Malaria in a Trinidadian Man. New England Journal of Medicine, 343: 1046-1047

Legros, F., Arnaud, A., El Minouni, B. and Danis, M. (2006). Paludisme d'importation en

France métropolitaine : données épidémiologiques 2001-2004. Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 32:235–236.

Midega, J. T. (2006). Distribution Patterns, Dispersal and Population Genetics of Anopheline mosquitoes along the Kenyan Coast. A Phd Thesis submitted to the Zoology department, University of Ghana, Legon. pp239

Onyabe, D., Y and Conn, J. E. (2001). The Distribution of Two Major Malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, in Nigeria. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 96(8): 1081-1084. Rio

Odaibo, F.S. (2006). Malaria Scourge: The facts, the lies and the politics. www.gamji.com/article5000/NEWS5145.htm

Olayemi, I. K. and Ande, A.T. (2008). Survivorship of Anopheles gambiae in Relation to Malaria Transmission in Ilorin, Nigeria. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 7(3):1 Retrieved at http://www.ojhas.org/issue27/2008-3-1.htm

Service, M.W. (1993). Mosquito ecology. Field sampling methods. 2nd edition. London: Elsevier/Chapman and Hall. pp244

Prugnolle, F., Durand, P., Neel, C., Ollomo, B., Ayala, F.J., Arnathau, C., Etienne, L.,

Mpoudi- Ngole, E., and Nkoghe, D. (2010). African great apes are natural hosts of

multiple related malaria species, including Plasmodium falciparum. Proceedings of. National Academy of Science USA, 107(4): 1458–1463. Retrieved at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2824423

Ribeiro, J.M., Seulu, F. and Abose, T. (1996). Temporal and spatial distribution of anopheline mosquitos in an Ethiopian village: implications for malaria control strategies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74 (3), 299-305.

Umar, A.M. and Knock, I.H. (2018). Distribution of Plasmodium Sporozoites in Katsina State, Nigeria. Fudma Journal of Microbiology (FUDMAJOM), 1(1):13-19

WHO (2000). Report on the trend of Yellow Fever in Africa. WHO Annual Report, Pp33-67

WHO (2002). Malaria desk situation analysis – Nigeria. WHO Annual Report, Pp56-66

WHO (2004). Lymphatic Filariasis, Regional office for South East Asia. WHO Annual Report, Pp211

WHO (2005). World Malaria Report. Roll Back Malaria. New York: United Nations Children Fund, Pp111

WHO (2008). Yearly Malaria report. Geneva. WHO Annual Report, Pp58. WHO-CISID (2008). malaria http://data.euro.who.int/cisid/

WHO (2011). Yearly Malaria report. Geneva. WHO Annual Report, 2011, Pp90


  • There are currently no refbacks.