COMPARISON OF PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PEELS AND JUICES OF CITRUS SPECIES

Christiana Jesumirhewe, Nnenna Maureen Omeke, Peter Oladejo Ogunlowo

Abstract


Antimicrobial resistance and decreasing efficiency of antimicrobial drugs have resulted in the search for antimicrobial agents as an important strategy for the establishment of alternative therapies in handling difficult infections. This study was carried out to compare the phytochemical components, antioxidant properties and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of juice and peels of some selected Citrus spp (Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) against Escherichia coli isolates. The undiluted juice and ethanol extracts of the peels were obtained from various Citrus spp. The antimicrobial activities of the resulting crude extracts were screened using agar well diffusion assay methods. Gentamicin was used as a standard in the antimicrobial activity studies. The free radical-scavenging activities of the samples were determined using the stable 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DDPH). The Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay were used to determine the total antioxidant activity in the extracts. The qualitative presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and cardiac glycosides were also analysed. The extracts of both the juice and the peels of Citrus aurantifolia had the highest antimicrobial activity compared to Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis. Gentamicin also had better inhibitory effects on the isolates used. The crude extracts of the juice and peels of the fruits exhibited significant antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging effects. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of various active medicinal constituents analysed. Our study showed good promising evidence for the antimicrobial effects of Citrus aurantifolia juice and peels.


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