PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND TOXICITY STUDY OF LEPTADENIA HASTATA (Pers.) Decne (Asclepiadaceae) ROOT

MURTALA M. NAMADINA, A. A. Nuhu, A. Y. Yanusa, E. Okrikata, N. J. Ekong, H. Abdulsalami

Abstract


Leptadenia hastata an African plant species used in traditional medicine as an anti-venom, antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, analgesic and also used for catarrh and skin disease. Despite the fact that the root of Leptadenia hastata have several medicinal properties, no standardization parameter has been assessed. The study was aimed at establishing a safety profile, evaluating phytochemical constituents and some Pharmacological properties of root extract of L. hastata. Evaluation of the powdered sample (chemomicroscopic, physicochemical parameters), qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity study was carried out using standard methods. Chemomicroscopic characters present included; cellulose cell wall, lignified cell wall, tannins, starch, calcium oxalate and cutin. The physicochemical parameters evaluated included: moisture content (7.3%), total ash (10.33%), water soluble (7.0%), acid insoluble ash (5.37%), ethanol extractive value (13.33%) and water extractive value (10.33%).Trace metals which included Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Mn detected in L. hastata were below the FAO/WHO (1984) permissible limit for edible plants. Phytochemicals which include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates and triterpenes were detected in both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Steroid was absent in both extracts. The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed that tannins (298 mg/g) was the highest phytochemical detected while the lowest was saponins (6.0 mg/g). LD50 was above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. The results of this investigation may be useful for deriving doses that are safe for human consumption medicinally of L. hastata.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abubakar, K., Danjuma, N.M., Maiha, B.B., Anuka, J.A., Yam, M.F., Bello, S.O., Yusoff A., Hor, S.Y., Mariam A. and Zaini M.A. (2015). A 28- Day Oral Toxicity Study of Pseudocedrela kotschyi Methanol Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats, Eur. J. of Med. Plants,10 (3), 1-11.

Adejumomi, J.A., Ogundiya, M.O,, Kolapo, K, Okunade M.B. (2008). Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus on some common oral pathogens. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2: 193-196.

Adekunle, A.S., Oluba, A., Babatola, L.J., Kamdem, J.P., Adesokan, A. (2014). Antiatherogenic, Hypolipidemic and Anti-inflammatory benefits of Black Tea and Zanthozylumzanthoxyloides. Br J Med Res.; 4(9):1923-1937.

Adesegun, S. A., Celestina, I. O. and Coker, H. A. (2016). Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus. Pharmacognosy Res. 8(3): 181–185.

Ajazuddin, N. and Shailendra, S. (2010). Evaluation of Physicochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Safoof-E-sana, a Unani polyherbal Formulation. Journal of Pharmacognosy Research, 2(5): 318-322.

Akpabio, U. D., and Ikpe, E. E. (2013): Proximate Composition and Nutrient Analysis of Aneilema aequinoctiale leaves. Pelagia Research Library. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 3(2):55-61.

Alhassan M. A., Ibrahim M., and Musa I. A. (2014). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Stem Bark Extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Herms). British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4(16): 1937-1944.

Ali, S.S., Kasoju, N., Luthra, A., Singh, A., Sharanabasava, H. (2008). Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. Food Research Interntional 41: 1-15.

Arbonnier M. (2000). Trees, shrubs and vines dry areas of West Africa. Narosa publishing house, new delhi, india. PP. 541

Association of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (2000). Official methods of analysis 19th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, US.

Association of Organic and Analytical Chemistry (2005). Official methods of analysis 20th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.

Betti, J.L., Yemefa'a, S.R.M., Nchembi, T. F. (2011). Contribution to the knowledge of non-woods forest products of the far north region of Cameroon. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment 3: 241-254.

Bohm, B. A. and Kocipal-abyazan, R. (1994). Flavonoids and Condensed tannins from leaves of Vaccinumv aticulatum and V. calycinium, Pacific Sci. 48: 458-463.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1990). British Herbal Medicine Association. Bournemouth: Dorset. 1st edition. Vol.1. Pp. 1-2.

Bruce, A. (2006). Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rats by determination of the approximate lethal dose rather than the LD50. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 6, 3.

Chanda, S. (2011). Importance of Pharmacognostic Study of Medicinal Plants: An Overview. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, 2 (5), 503-514.

Dambatta, S.H., Aliyu, B.S. (2011). A survey of major ethno medicinal plants of Kano North Nigeria, their knowledge and uses by traditional healers. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 4: 28-34.

Del-Rio, A., Obdululio, B.G., Casfillo, J., Main, F.G., Ortuno, A., (1997). Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry; 45: 4505- 4515.

Dennis V. P. (1984). Mammalian metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals. In Kacew, S. and Reasor, M. J. (eds.) Toxicology and Newborn. London: Chapman Hall, pp 1-32.

Evans, W.C. (2009). Trease and Evans pharmocognosy. 16th edition. Elselviers Ltd., UK, Pp.560-562, 568-570.

Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (1984). Contaminants. In Codex Alimentarius, vol. XVII, Edition 1. FAO/WHO, Codex AlimentariusCommision, Rome.

Ghani, A., (1990). Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Ahmadu Bello University, Press Ltd. 1st Edition, Pp187.

Han X., Shen T, Lou H. (2007). Dietry polyphenols and their biological significance. International Journal Molecular Science; 8: 950-988.

Harborne, Z. B. (2009). Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, 3rd edn. Chapman and Hall Press, London. Pp. 13, 53, 53 195, 283.

Ibrahim, H.A., Ali, G.Y., Halliru, S.N., Usaini, S. and Abdullahi, I.I. (2012). Ethno botanical Survey of the Wild Edible Food Plants Consumption among Local Communities in Kano State, North-Western. International Journal of Science and Technology 2: 713- 717

Just, M. J., Recio, M.C., Giner, R.M., Cuéllar, M.J., Máñez, S. (1998). Antiinflammatory activity of unusual lupane saponins from Bupleurum fruticescens. Planta Medica 64: 404-407.

Kaneria, M., and Chanda, S. (2011). Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Psidium guajava L (Mrytaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy; 3 (23): 41-45.

Kerarho, J. and Adam, J.G. (1974). The traditional Senegalese pharmacopoeia: Medicinal and poisonous plants. Vigot brother’s edition, Paris, London.

Kofi, D., Laud, N.K.O., Wonder, K. M. A. and Eric, W. (2014). Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Root Bark of Cassia Sieberiana D.C. in Rodents. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 4 (4), 84-89.

Lorke, D. (1983). A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity Testing. Archives of Toxicology. Pp. 275-287.

Marjorie, C. (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12(4): 564–582.

Mathieu, G. and Meissa, D. (2007). Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses. Africa Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine.10: 469-475.

Musa, Y.M., Haruna, A.K., Ilyas, M., Yaro, A.H., Ahmadadu, A.A. (2005). Anagelsic and anti- inflammatory activities of the leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyii Harms (Meliaceae). Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology; 2: 542-550.

Nuhu, A., Danmalam, U.H., Ilyas, N., Zakariya, A.M., Abdulhamid, Z., Abubakar, A.Z.(2016). Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves and Stem-bark of Commiphora africana (A. Rich). Niger J Nat Prod Med., 20(1): 56-60.

Obadoni, B. O and Ochuko, K. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extract of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 8: 203-208.

Okwu, D.E (2004). Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigenous species of southeastern Nigeria. Agricultural Environment 1: 30-37.

Olson, H., Betton, G., Robinson, D., Thomas, K., Monro, A., Kolaja, G., Lilly, P., Sanders, J., Sipes, G., Bracken, W., Dorato, M., Deun, K.V., Smith, P., Berger, B and Heller, A.(2000). Concordance of Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Humans and in Animals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol., 32: 56-67

Organization for Economic Development (OECD) (2001). Guideline for testing of chemicals. Guideance no 425. Up and Down procedure, Adopted: 17th December 2001.

Oyedemi, S.O., Oyedemi, B.O., Arowosegbe, S., Afolayan, A. J (2012). Phytochemical analysis and Medicinal Potentials of Hydroalcoholic extract of Curtisia dentate (Burm. F) C.A. Stem bark. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 13:6189-6203.

Prasad, S.K., Laloo, D., Sahu, A.N., Hemalatha, S. (2012). Cytomorphological and Physiochemical Evaluations of Cryptocoryne spiralis (Retzius) Wydler. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 8(4): 304-307.

Prasanth, K.M., Suba, V., Ramireddy, B. and Srinivasa, B.P. (2015). Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic Extract of the root of Oncoba spinosan (Flacourtiaceae) in Rodents. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 14(10), 1849-1855.

Rabia, N., Mir A. K., Kiran, Y. K, Mushtaq, A., Barkat, A., Paras, M., Mazhar, M. and Hussain A. (2012). Element Content of Some Ethnomedicinal Ziziphus Linn. Species Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2(3), 96-100.

Rajurkar, N.S. and Damame, M.M.(1997). Elemental Analysis of Some Herbal Plants used in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases by AAS and NAA. J Radioanalytical Nucl Chem. 219(1): 77-80.

Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J., Henderson, G.(2012). Rang and Dale's pharmacology. (7th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone; 377 p.

Sodipo, O.A., Akiniyi, J.A., Ogunbamosu, J.U (2000). Studies of certain characteristics of extracts of bark of Pansinystalia macruceras (K schemp) picrre Exbeille. Global Journal of Pure Applied Science 6: 83-87.

Tamboura, H.H.‚ Bayala, B., Lompo, M., Guissou, I.P. and Sawadogo, L (2007) Ecological distribution, morphological characteristics and acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Durand & Schinz, Leptadeniahastata(Pers.) Decne and Cassia sieberiana (dc) used by veterinary healers in Burkina Faso. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative,,2: 13-24.

Tatiya, A., Surana, S., Bhavsar, S., Patil, D., Patil, Y.(2012). Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation of Eulophiaherbacea Lindl. Tubers (Orchidaceae). AsianPac J Trop Dis; 2(1): 50-55.

Thomas J. E. (2013). Botany in a day, a pattern method of plant identification. An herbal field guide to plant families.sixth edition. HOPS Press LLC Atlanta ,USA. PP 235.

Togola, A., Austarheim, I., Theïs, A., Diallo, D. and Paulsen, B.S. (2008). Ethno pharmacological uses of Erythrinasenegalensis: a comparison of three areas in Mali, and a link between traditional knowledge and modern biological science. Journal of EthnobiologyEthnomedicine 4: 6.

Ugbogu, E A., Emmanuel, O., Iheanyichukwu E, Friday U., Emmanuel A., Chinyere G. C, Faith, E. and Chizoba J. U (2016). Toxicological assessment of the aqueous dried leaf extracts of Senna alata L. in wistar rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 10(34), pp. 709.

Van-burden, T. P and Robinson, W. C. (1981). Formation of Complexes between protein and Tannic acid. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry. 1:77.

Vyry, W.N.A., Misra, L.N., Venkatesh, K.R., Darokar, M.P., Tchoumbougnang, F.(2013). Zantholic acid, a new monoterpenoid from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Nat Prod Res.; 27(21): 1994-1998

Walum E. (1998). Acute oral toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 106: 497- 503.

Walum, E. (1998). Acute oral toxicity. Environmental Health Perspective, 106, 497-503.

WHO (1996): Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals: A Compendum of Guidelines and Related Materials, Good Manufacturing Practices and Inspection. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Pp 2-18.

World Health Organization (2011). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, Pp. 31.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




FEDERAL UNIVERSITY DUTSIN-MA, KATSINA STATE - Copyright 2020