Gideon Yakusak Benjamin, I. H. Inabo, I. H. Doko, O. B. Olayinka


Malaria is a significant public health problem, especially in developing countries including Nigeria. This research aimed to determine the association between some demographic factors and malaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 300 participants and screened for malaria parasites using microscopy. Relevant information was obtained by administration of structured questionnaires. Occupants of compound houses had malaria prevalence of 25.0% which was higher than the 19.4% prevalence found among occupants of self-contained apartments. Higher malaria prevalence (31.8%) was found among married participants than participants who were single (16.0%) and divorced (12.5%). The association between malaria prevalence and marital status was statistically significant (p<0.05). Participants in families with 16-20 children had the highest prevalence (50.0%). Those in monogamous families had a lower prevalence (21.5%) than those in polygamous families with 27.6%. In conclusion, marital status was the only factor found to be significantly associated with malaria. Therefore, appropriate public awareness and interventions should target this group in Kaduna State.

Full Text:



Aimone, A.M., Perumal, N., Cole, D.C. (2013). A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria. International Journal of Health Geographics. 12:1–13.

Aliyu, M.M., Nasir, I.A., Umara,Y.A., Vanstawaa, A.P., Meduguc, J.T., Emeribed, A.U. and Amadue, D.O. (2017). Prevalence, risk factors, and antimalarial resistance patterns of falciparum plasmodiasis among pregnant women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Tzu Chi Medical Journal, 29 (2), 98-103.

Arthi, V. and Fenske, J. (2018). Polygamy and child mortality: Historical and modern evidence from Nigeria’s Igbo. Journal of Review of Economics of the Household, 6(1), 16:97.

Cheesebrough, M. (2009). District laboratory practice in tropical countries part 1, second edition. New york: Cambridge University Press.pp. 245-249.

Dawit, G. A., Temesge, T.Z. and Henry, G. M. (2012). Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria Journal, 11:195.

Gardner, M.J., Hall, N., Fung, E., White, O., Berriman, M., Hyman, R.W.,…Barrell, B. (2002). Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Nature, 419 (6906), 498-511.

Greenwood, B. & Mutabingwa, T. (2002). Malaria. Nature, 415, 670–672.

Hasyim, H., Nursafingi, A., Haque, U., Montag, D., Groneberg, D.A., Dhimal, M., Muller, R. (2018). Spatial modelling of malaria cases associated with environmental factors in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Malaria Journal. 17:87.

Idoko, M.O., Ado, S.A. and Umoh, V.J. (2015). Prevalence of Dengue Virus and Malaria in Patients with Febrile Complaints in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal, 8 (1), 343-347.

Kebede, S., Aseffa, A., Medhin, G., Berhe, N., & Velavan, T.P.(2014). Re-evaluation of microscopy confirmed Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria by nested PCR detection in southern Ethiopia. Malaria Journal, 13, 48.

Konradsen, F., Amerasinghe, P., van der Hoek, W., Amerasinghe, F., Perera, D., and Piyaratne, M. (2003). Strong association between house characteristics andmalaria vectors in Sri Lanka. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 68:177–181.

Lindsay, S.W., Jawara, M., Paine, K., Pinder, M., Walraven, G.E.L., and Emerson, P.M. (2003). Changes in house design reduce exposure to malaria mosquitoes. Tropical Medicine and International Health,8: 512–517.

Morakinyo, O.M., Balogun, F.M., and Fagbamigbe, A.F. (2018). Housing type and risk of malaria among under-five children in Nigeria: evidence from the malaria indicator survey. Malaria Journal, 17:311.

Naing, L.,Winn, T.,Rusli,B.N. (2006). Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences; 1, 9-14.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) (2016). Malaria. Retrieved from / diseases/factsheet/24

Nyarko, S.H. and Cobblah, A. (2014). Sociodemographip Determinants of Malaria among Under five Children in Ghana. Malaria research and Treatment, article ID304361. Retrieved from

Nyirakanani, C., Chibvongodze, R., Habu, M., Masika, M.,Mukoko, D., and Njunwa K.J. (2018). Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 20 (1): 1-7.

O’Meara, W.P., Mangeni, J.N., Steketee, R. and Greenwood, B. (2010). Changes in the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infectious Disease, 10, 545–555.

Ouji, M., Augerea, J.M., Paloque, L. and Benoit-Vical, F.(2018). Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies: A sword of Damocles in the path toward malaria elimination. Parasite, 25:24.

Simple, O., Mindra, A., Obai, G., Ovuga, E. and Odongo-Aginya, E.I. (2018). Influence of Climatic Factors on Malaria Epidemic in Gulu District, Northern Uganda: A 10 year Retrospective Study. Malaria Research and Treatment, article ID 5482136. Retrieved from

State population (2006). Nigeria-population census 2006. Retrieved from

Stephenson, R., Baschieri, A., Clements, S., Hennink, M., and Madise, N. (2006).Contextual influences on the use of health facilities for childbirth in Africa. American Journal of Public Health, 96 (1), 84-93.

World Health Organisation (2000). Management of severe malaria: A practical hand book

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2017). World malaria repot 2017. Retrieved from malaria/ publications/world-malaria-report-2017/report/en/


  • There are currently no refbacks.