PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POULTRY DROPPINGS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

Rufus Precious ENENYA, Olonitola O. Stephen, Tijjani M. B., M. Bello

Abstract


Antibiotic use in poultry production is a major risk factor for the emergence of resistant pathogenic bacteria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella species isolated from poultry droppings in Zaria, Nigeria. Samples of fresh poultry droppings were collected between July 2018 and March 2019 from commercial chicken farms and plated on selective and differential media. Bacteria were identified by standard microbiological methods and confirmed using MicrogenTM kits. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique using 14 antibiotic discs. The prevalence of bacteria were Escherichia coli (45.52%), Proteus spp. (9.10%), Enterococcus spp. (8.25%), Staphylococcus spp. (6.83%), Klebsiella spp. (4.55%), Enterobacter spp. (4.41%), Bacillus spp. (4.27%), Pseudomonas spp. (3.28%), Providencia spp. (3.13%), Citrobacter spp. (1.85%), Shigella spp. (1.14%), Serratia spp. (0.99%), Yersinia spp. (0.99%), Salmonella enterica. (0.71%) and Others (4.98%). Among the 5 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated, 4(80%) were resistant to tetracycline and 2(40%) resistant to ampicillin, azithromycin, trimethroprim-sulphamethoxazol and nitrofurantoin. Also, among the 5 strains of Klebsiella spp, 4(80%) were resistant to azithromycin, tetracycline and nitrofurantoin, while 3(60%) were resistant to ampicillin and cefotaxim. Also, Salmonella enterica 1(20%) and Klebsiella spp. 3(60%) had multiple antibiotic resistance indices ≥0.36 in this study. Conclusively, indiscriminate use of antibiotic in poultry has led to emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria in Nigeria. Therefore, regulatory authority should enforce the ban on the use of some antibiotic in poultry production to maintain public health safety.


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References


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