SURVEY AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH MOBILE AND WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION MAST IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE AREAS WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS

Ismail Magaji, A. K. Ibrahim, A. Isah

Abstract


This paper is aimed at survey of the EM radiations from GSM masts around residential and office areas of Kaduna metropolis. It’s focused on carrying out study on the electromagnetic exposure emitted by mobile phone base stations. Mast from each of the service providers were surveyed (AIRTEL, ETISALAT, GLO, MTN). Radio frequency Electromagnetic Force (RF EMF) strength meter was used to obtain readings from around the mast. The Electric field strength E and magnetic field strength Hwas measured at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40m away from the mast in N/C andT respectively.The readings obtained were analyzed and compared with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) exposures limits for radio frequency waves. The results showed that electromagnetic exposures from the mast are quite below the exposure limits. This research workhasestablished that the populations in Kaduna metropolis are less subjected to any adverse health effects emanating from the Global System of telecommunication masts.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies MCSER Publishing (2013), Rome - Italy

ACGHH; (1996): Threshold limit values. Conference of government industrial hygiene, Cincinnati, OH 1994

African Journal of Biomedical Research (2009), Vol 12(1).

Akindele A O, Tosin O, AboladeO. (2014). Perceived housing satisfaction in public estates box Oshogbo Nigeria. Journal of geography and regional planning, Vol 7(9) pp 185-191

Akintowa A, Busari A.A., Awodele O.,Olayemi S.O. (2009). The hazard of non-ionizing radiation of telecommunication mast in an urban area of Lagos Nigeria. Vol 12(1), African journal of biomedical research.

Alleman J.(1989). International settlements an analysis of rates university of Colorado Boulder

Antoelli C.(1991). Diffusion of advanced telecommunications in developing countries development centre of the O.E.C.D. Paris pp111

Camber. (1996): Introduction to Health Physics. The McGraw Hill Companies. Inc, England.

Changnaud (1999): Biological and medical aspects of electromagnetic fields, Germany

Chagnaud C. Petit P., Bartoli J.M. (1998). Postoperative follow up of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas; assessment by CT scan and MR imaging.Eurradiol Vol 8 pp756-764

Cherry (2009): A dramatic rise in severe and chronic disease among our patients exposed to RF/MW, Germany.

Fernie K.J (2005): effects of electromagnetic fields from power lines on avian reproductive biology and physiology: 127-40

Hamblin D.L., Andrew Wood W. (2002). Effect of mobile phone emission on human brain activity and sleep variables. International journal of radiation biology Vol 78(8) pp659-669.

CNIPR (2009): Exposure to High frequency Electromagnetic fields, Biological Effects and Health Consequences (100 kHz-300Ghz). 85764 OberscBleim, Germany

International conference on Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IET 2011)

International conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at 1TNITEN (ICNIR, 2003) Electromagnetic Fields and Health, Pg. 1

Kiefer J. (1990). Biological radiation effect springer-verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, Chichester Brisbane, Toronto

Michelson S.M. (1983). Biological effect and health hazard of RF and MW energy. Fundamental and overall phenomenology In:

Microsoft Encarta (2009): Electromagnetic Radiation, WA, Microsoft Corporation.

Moh'd, Y (2003): Radiofrequency and microwave Radiation Safety Assessment of Mobile Telephone Base Stations in Malaysia.

Omotayo O. B., Yifeng H., Sunfar S. (2008). Cell phone usage and social interaction with proximate orders ringing in a theoretical model. Open communication journal U.S.A. Vol 2 pp 127-135

Ramsey J., Kwon Y. (1988). Simplified decision rules for predicting performance loss in the heat.In: proceedings seminar on heat stress indices. Luxembourg, CEC

Zain (2005): Information, Body and Product and Services for Zain Telecommunication Network Community, www.zain.com


Refbacks





FEDERAL UNIVERSITY DUTSIN-MA, KATSINA STATE - Copyright 2019