Eugene Anibe Idogbe, Aminu Lawal Ahmad, Kolawole Muideen Lawal, Babangida Mohammed Ahmed, Muhammad Muhammad Isah


A Coal mining site at Odagbo in north central Nigeria was investigated to detect possible hidden subsurface voids created due to mining activities and to further suggest areas prone to subsidence. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a technique that has proven effective in detecting and mapping hidden mine workings. It is based on conceptual resistivity model that explores resistivity contrast between the subsurface voids and surrounding host materials and also characterizes the voids with higher or lower resistivity as either empty or in-filled voids than the host. The survey was carried out with Terrameter SAS 4000 and ES 464 electrode selector equipment adopting dipole-dipole electrode configuration at electrode spacing of 5 m to acquire data along three parallel profiles laid at equal interval 40 m in the study area. The acquired datas were processed and inverted with RES2DINV algorithm software. From the results, it shows air-filled cavities are found in the top-layers of each profile (at about a depth of 0-12 m) with resistivity values ranging from 1216 Ωm - 4016 Ωm and water-filled cavities are at much deeper depth, with resistivity values ranging from 4 Ωm -130 Ωm. The study shows that the voids trends in NW-SE direction with depth increasing in dimension, and that voids may overtime grow large enough to cause a subsidence.

Full Text:



Agagu, O.K., Fayose, E. A. and Petters, S. W. (1985). "Stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Senonian Anambra Basin of Eastern Nigeria", Journal of Mining and Geology, 22: 25–36.

Ahmed, S., Carpenter, P. J. (2003). Geophysical response of filled sinkholes, soil pipes and associated bedrock fractures in thinly mantled karst, east-central Illinois. Environmental Geology 44 (6), 705-716.

Ameh, E. G. (2013). Multivariate statistical analyses and enrichment of heavy metal contamination of soils around Okaba coal mine. American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy, 6(1): 9-13.

Antonio-Carpio, R. G., Perez-Flores, M. A., Camargo-Guzman, D., Alanis-Alcantar, A. (2004). Use of resistivity measurements to detect urban caves in Mexico City and to assess the related hazard. Natural hazards and Earth System Sciences 4 (4), 541-547.

BGR, (2009). (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe- Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources), Reserve, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources-Annul Report 2009, BGR, Hannover, Germany, www.bgr.bund.de.

Burke, K. C. (1996). The African Plate. South African Journal of Geology, 99: 341-409.

C.I.A.B., Coal Industry Advisory Board (2008). Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment, CIAB, International Energy Agency, Paris.

Cardarelli E., Di Filippo G., Tuccinardi E., (2006) Electrical resistivity tomography to detect buried cavities in Rome: A case study. Near Surface Geophysics 4: 387–392.

Christine K. (2015). The Nigeria Coal Atlas Heinrich Böll Foundation, Berlin (Germany), Heinrich Böll Foundation, Nigeria and Friends of the Earth International, London, UK, p. 10.

Dahlin T. and Zhou B. (2004). A numerical comparison of 2D resistivity imaging with ten electrode arrays. Geophysical Prospecting, 2004; 52: 379-398.

Eshimiakhe, D., Raimi J., Larry B., Abubakar H., Matthew M. O., (2018).

Mineshaft Imaging Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography in a Kaolin Mining Site at Kankara in North Central Nigeria. Journal of Geology & Geophysics 7:5. DOI: 10.4172/2381-8719.1000447.

Johnson W. J. (2003) Case histories of DC resistivity measurements to map shallow coal mine workings. The Leading Edge, 22: 571-573.

Kogbe, C. A. (1989). The Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments of southern Nigeria. In: Kogbe, C.A. (Ed.), Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company, Lagos, pp. 325e334.

Loke, M. H. (2005). RES2DINV. Repaid 2-D resistivity and IP inversion using the Least-Squares method. Manual. Geotomo Software, Penang, Malaysia.

Loke, M. H. (2006). RES2DINV. Repaid 2-D resistivity and IP inversion using the Least-Squares method. Manual. Geotomo Software, Penang, Malaysia.

Loke, M. H. and Barker, R. D. (1996). Practical techniques for 3D resistivity surveys and data inversion. Geophysical Prospecting 44 (30), 499-523.

Maillol, J. M., Seguin, M. K., Gupta, O. P., Akhauri, H. M., Sen, N. (1991). Electrical resistivity tomography survey for delineating uncharted mine galleries in West Bengal, India. Geophysical Prospecting 47 (20), 103-116.

MMSD (2006). Ministry of Mines and Solid Mineral Development. www.mmsd.gov.ng/solid_minerals_sector/Coal.asp.

National Coal Board (1982). The Treatment of Disused Mineshafts and Adits. National Coal Board.

Nwajide, C. S. (1990). Cretaceous Sedimentation and Paleogeography of the Central Benue Though. In: Ofoegbu, C.O; (Ed.), The Benue. Tough structure and Evolution International Monograph Series, Braunschweig, pp. 19-38.

Nwaobi, G. C (2012). The Nigerian Coal Corporation: An Evaluation of Production Performance (1960-1987) in Odesola et al., International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4 No. 1.

Odesola, I. F, Eneje Samuel and Temilola Olugasa (2013). Coal Development in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4 No. 1 pp 64 – 73.

Ogala, J., Silvanus, G., & Christanis, K. (2012). Coal petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of lignite samples from Ogwashi-Asaba Formation, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 66-67(2012), 35-45.

Reijers, T. J. F. (1996). "Selected Chapters on Geology, SPDC of Nigeria, Corporate Reprographic Services, Warri, 197p.

Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspect of the Geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press. 145p.

Sada, M. M. (2012). Investigation opportunities in Nigeria mineral and metal sector. Paper presented at Africa Down Under International Conference, Perth, Western Australia.

Sheets, R. A., Munk, J. (1997). Detection of underground voids in Ohio by use of geophysical methods. US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 97– 4221.

Taylor, G. H., Teichmu¨ller, M., Davis, A., Diessel, C. F. K., Littke, R., Robert, P. (1998). Organic Petrology. Gebru¨der Borntraeger, Berlin.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000). Abandoned mine site characterization and cleanup handbook. EPA 910-B-00-001.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000). Mine Site cleanup for Brownfileds redevelopment- A three-part primer. EPA 542-R-05-030.

Umeji, P. O. (2005). Palynological study of the Okaba coal mine section in the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 4(2): 193-203.

Van Schoor, M. (2002). Detection of sink holes using 2D electrical resistivity imaging. Journal of Applied Geophysics 50 (4), 393-399.

Ward C. R. (2003). Coal exploration and mining geology. School of Geology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Geology,V: 1 – 9.

Wilkinson, P. B., Chambers, J. E., Meldrum, P. I., Ogilvy, R. D. (2006). Optimization of array configurations and geometrics for the detection of abandoned mineshafts by 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 11, 213-221.

World Coal Institute (2009). The coal resources: A comprehensive overview of coal (Research report). Retrived from http://www.worldcoal.org


  • There are currently no refbacks.