INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THREE PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS ATTACK ON MAIZE SEEDS UNDER HERMETIC STORAGE CONDITION

H. E. Negbenebor, Nura Salisu

Abstract


A research was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal effects of three plants extracts obtained from Uvaria chamae, Plumbago zeylanica and Jatropha curcas on Sitophilus zeamais which causes significant damage and economic loss to stored maize grains in Nigeria. Seeds of maize grains introduced with the test organism were treated with the three plants extracts at five different concentrations: 0.5, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00 mg/l with three replications per treatment and control. The control is treated with distil water. The seeds were stored under hermatic condition for a period of six months. The results obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance with Least significant difference used to separate the means. The result obtained revealed that, the ethanolic extracts offered comparable protection to the maize grains against the test insect for the six months duration. There was no grain damage on treated maize grains due to insect infestation for two months for U. chamae and P. zeylanica, while J. curcas gave three months protection. There was significant difference (P≤0.05) between the control and treated maize grains respectively. The mortality of the insects was used to compute mean lethal concentration (LC50) values by probit analysis and it was found that, extract from U. chamae with 48h LC50 value of 1.778 mg/l was the most toxic against S. zeamais adult followed by J. curcas and P. zeylanica with LC50 values of 1.869 and 2.353 mg/l respectively. All the concentrations tested showed appreciable toxicity against each test insect species. The computed mortality

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