Muhammad Abdurrahman, J. Gambo, J. Gambo, I. M. Musa, I. M. Musa, I. Sa'adu, I. Sa'adu, M. Shehu, M. Shehu, Z. Dahiru, Z. Dahiru


Incoming solar radiation is the primary driving force for globes biological, physical and industrial systems. Cognition of the amount of solar radiation at various geographic emplacements is desirable for application in such varied disciplines as civil engineering, agriculture, meteorology, ecological research, environmental assessment, forestry and solar energy utilization. This paper introduces the most important parametric quantity such as solar zenith angles, solar Azimuth angle, Surface incidence angle and provides the location of the sun at any time and at any position using SPA (Solar Position Algorithm). Specific case has been studied to analyze the pattern of solar radiation and the solar path at June solstice with two neighboring day before and after the solstices. The results bespeak that the proposed framework can be successfully used to guesstimate the tract of the sun during all the seasons of year for studying position and for considering day, using as input the observer latitude (degrees), observer longitude (degrees), average local pressure, average local temperature and latitude (m). The result of this study shows that the maximum value of solar radiation is obtained at an azimuth angle of  throughout the solstice while Topocentric zenith angle and surface incidence angle has the same values.

Full Text:



Abdurrahman, M. (2019). The Sun's Placement and Route for Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria, Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (DUJOPAS), Vol. 5 No. 1a June 2019, pp: 2476-8316.

Abdurrahman, M, J. Gambo, J., Shitu, I.G, Y. A. Yusuf, .Y.A, Dahiru, .Z, Idris, .A,M & A. A. Isah, A.A .(2019). Solar Elevation Angle and Solar Culmination Determination using Celestial Observation; A Case Study Of Hadejia Jigawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of advances in Scientific Research and Engineering 5:2454-8006.

Blanco-Muriel, M., Alarcón-Padilla, D. C., López-Moratalla, T., Lara-Coira, M. (2001). Computing the solar vector. Solar Energy, 70(5), 431-441.

Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald .(2012). The SG2 algorithm for a fast and accurate computation of the position of the Sun for multi-decadal time period. Solar Energy, Elsevier, 88 (10), pp.Pages 3072-3083.

Bretagnon, P., Francou, G. (1988). Planetary theories in rectangular and spherical variables. VSOP87 solutions. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 202, 309-315.

Dubayah, R. and P.M. Rich. (1995). Topographic solar radiation models for GIS. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems 9:405-413.

Dubayah, R. and P.M. Rich. (1996). GIS-based solar radiation modeling. pp. 129-134 In: M.F. Goodchild, L.T. Steyaert, B.O. Parks. C. Johnston, D. Maidment, M. Crane, and S. Glendinning (eds). GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. GIS World Books. Fort Collins, CO.

Duffle, J.A. and Beckman, W.A. (1980). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. Wiley- Interscience, New York, NY, 762 pp.

Eric Chaisson & Steve McMillan. (1995), Astronomy: A Beginner’s Guide To The Universe, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2ndedition,

Espinar, B., Ramírez, L., Polo, J., Zarzalejo, L.F., Wald, L. (2009). Analysis of the influences of uncertainties in input variables on the outcomes of the Heliosat-2 method. Solar Energy, 83, 1731-1741, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2009.06.010

ESRA. (2000). European Solar Radiation Atlas. Fourth edition, includ. CD-ROM. Edited by Greif, J., and K. Scharmer. Scientific advisors: R. Dogniaux, J. K. Page. Authors: L. Wald, M. Albuisson, G. Czeplak, B. Bourges, R.

Aguiar, H. Lund, A. Joukoff, U. Terzenbach, H. G. Beyer, E. P. Borisenko. Published for the Commission of the European Communities by Presses de l'Ecole, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Paris, France.

Geiger, R.J. (1965). The climate near the ground. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Gates, D.M. (1980). Biophysical Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Grena, R., (2008). An algorithm for the computation of the solar position. Solar Energy, 82(5), 462-470, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2007.10.001.

Kambezidis, H. D., Tsangrassoulis, A. E. (1993). Solar position and right ascension. Solar Energy, 50(5), 415-416.

Klein, S.A. (1977). Calculation of monthly average insolation on tilted surfaces. Sol. Energy, 19: 325.

Liu B.Y.H and Jordan R.C. (1963). The long-term average performance of fiat-plate solar energy collectors. Solar Energy 7, ~3 :1963.

Meeus, J. (1999). Astronomical Algorithms (2nd edition). Willmann-Bell Inc., Richmond, Va, USA, 477 pp.

Michalsky, J. (1988). The astronomical almanac's algorithm for approximate solar position (1950–2050). Solar Energy, 40(3), 227-235.

Nicholls, R.L. and Child, T.N. (1979). Solar radiation charts. Sol.

Energy, 22: 91-97.

Perez, R., Ineichen, P., Moore, K., Kmiecik, M., Chain, C., George, R., Vignola, F. (2002). A new operational model for satellite-derived irradiances: description and validation. Solar Energy, 73(5), 307-317, doi: 10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00122-6.

Pitman, C.L., Vant-Hull, L.L. (1978). Errors in locating the Sun and their effect on solar intensity predictions. In: Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Denver, 28 August 1978, pp. 701–706.

Reda, I., Andreas, A. (2003). Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications: Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co, USA. Revised version: January 2008.

Reda, I., Andreas, A. (2004). Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications: Solar Energy, 76(5), 577–589. Corrigendum, 81, 838-838, 2007.

Rigollier, C., Lefèvre, M., Wald, L. (2004). The method Heliosat-2 for deriving shortwave solar radiation from satellite images. Solar Energy, 77(2), 159-169.

Robinson, N. (Editor), (1966). Solar Radiation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 347 pp.

Robert Walraven. (1977); Calculating the position of the sun, Solar Enerey, Vol. 20, pp. 393-397.PergamonPress197

Stafford, B., Davis, M., Chambers, J., Martínez, M., Sanchez, D. (2009). Tracker accuracy: field experience, analysis, and correlation with meteorological conditions. In Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Philadelphia, USA, June 7-12, 2009, pp. 2256-2259.

Thomas D. B (1981). Calculating solar radiation for ecological studies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ecological Modelling, (14) 1-19

Walraven, R. (1978). Calculating the position of the Sun. Solar Energy, 20, 393-397.


  • There are currently no refbacks.