Mukhtar Adamu Abubakar, M. U. Dawaki, O. I. Yunusa


This research was conducted along the bank of River Jakara in metropolitan Kano, Kano state, Nigeria (latitude 11º 25' N and 12º 47' N and longitude 8º 22' E to 8º 39' E and lies 472m elevation). Three profile pits were sunk and four soil samples were collected according to profile depth of 30 cm intervals (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, and 90-120 cm). The research aimed to assess the fitness and validity of the equal-area spline functions on vertical distribution of organic carbon in the study area. The algorithm (one profile function) displayed organic carbon (OC g/kg) content decreased down the profile depth across all the three soil pits. The fitness and validity of the model (R2) ranged in the order 0.85, 0.93 and 0.94 with RMSE of 2.09, 1.47 and 1.32 respectively between the measured and predicted organic carbon value in the study area.

Full Text:



Ado, K. I. (2006): A publication of the Research and Documentation Directorate, Kano State Government: Investnent Opportunities in Kano Center of Commerce. ISBN 978-8092-08-X 1st Eds

Asomani-Boateng, R. and Haight, M. ( 1999). Reusing organic solid waste in urban farming in African cities: a challenge for urban planners. In: Agriculture urbaine en Afrique de /'Ouest.Une contribution a Ia securite alimentaire eta l'assainissement des villes I Urban Agriculture inWest Africa. Contributing to Food Security and Urban Sanitation. (Smith, O.B., ed.). Ottawa, Canada: CRDVCT A.

Bichi, M. H. (2000). Surface water quality in the Kano Industrial Environment, In: Falola, J. A., Ahmed, K., Liman, M. A. and Maiwada, A. (eds), issues in Land Administration and Development in Northern Nigeria, Proceedings of the National Workshop on Land Administration and Development in Northern Nigeria, Department of Geography Bayero University, Kano. pp. 305-313.

Binns, J.A., Maconachie, R.A., Tanko, A.I. (2003), Water, Land and Health in Urban and Peri-Urban Food production: the case of Kano, Nigeria, Land Degradation Development 14, 431-444

Binns, T. and Lynch, K. (1998). Feeding Africa's growing cities into the 21st century: the potential of urban agriculture. Journal of International Development10:777-793.

Bishop, T. F. A., McBratney, A. B., & Laslett, G. M. (1999). Modeling soil attribute depth functions with equal-area quadratic smoothing splines. Geoderma, 91(1–2), 27–45.

Brook, R.M. and Davila, J.D. (2000). The peri-urban interface: a tale of two cities. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales and Development Planning Unit, University College London. Bethesda,

Gwynedd, Wales, U.K.: Gwasg Ffrancon Printers. changes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:1904–1910.

Cofie, O., Dreschel, P., Amoah, P., Danso, G. and Gyiele, L. (2001). Improving rural-urban nutrient flows through urban and peri-urban agriculture. Rural-Urban Encounters: Managingthe Environment of the Peri-Urban Interface. DPU International Conference, London, U.K., 9-16.

Dokaji, A. A. (1978). Kano Ta Dabo Cigari. Northern Nigeria Publishing Company, Zaria. Pp 102.

Drechsel, P., Cofie, 0., Vazquez, R. and Danso, G. (2002). Technology development for municipal organic waste recycling for urban and peri-urban agriculture-A holistic approach.E-conference, 2-14 February 2002 at

Edonga, R.N., Jock, J.N and Edonga, M.O. (2000). Evaluation of potential evapotranspiration by Adjusted Blaney Equation with microlysimeter at samara, NGS, Nigeria. Proceedings of 20th Ann. Conf. of SSSN. Oct., 30-Nov., 3rd, Ibadan

Egziabher, A.G., Lee-Smith, D., Maxwell, D.G., Memon, P.A., Mougeot, L.J.A., and Sawio, C.J. (1994). Cities feeding people. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

Erh, T.(1972). Application of spline functions to soil science.Am J of Soil Sci, 114(5): 333–338.

Esrey, S.A. and Andersson, I. (2001). Ecological sanitation-Closing the loop. Urban Agriculture Magazine 3:35-37.

Florinsky, I., Eilers, R., Manning, G., Fuller, L., (2002): Prediction of soil properties by digital terrain modlling, Environmental modeling and Software 17:295-311

Jenny, H. (1941). Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. McGraw Hill, New York and London.

Jones, M.J. and Wild, A. (1975). Soil of West Africa Savanna. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Harpenden.U.K. pp.24Journal of Environmental Quality, 26:1038.

Lynch, K., Binns T. and Olofin, E. (2001), urban agriculture under threat: the land security question in Kano, Nigeria. Cities 18: 159 - 171.

Malone, P., Minasny, B. andMcBratney,B. (2017). Using R for Digital Soil Mapping, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 96-100.

Malone, B.P., McBratney, A.B., Minasny, B. and G.M. Laslett, (2009). Geoderma. Vol 154(1-2): 138‐152

Mougeot, J.L.A. (1994). African city farming from a world perspective. In: Cities feeding people (Egziabher, A.G., Lee-Smith, D., Maxwell, D.G., Memon, P.A., Mougeot, L.J.A., andSawio, C.J., eds.), pp.l-24. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

Mougeot, L. J. A. (2005) AGROPOLIS: The Social, Political and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture. Earthscan, London.

Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982): In: Page, A. L. (ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2. pp 570-571. Agro: Monograph. 9. ASA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. New York.

NPC, “Nigeria national population census report, (2006). Retrieved from: Nigeria Population Commission (NPC) office, Kano state.

Olofin, E. (1996). Socio-economic sustainability of the fadama system in the dry lands of Nigeria. Geography 81: 377-380.

Olofin, E.A., Fereday, N., Ibrahm, A.T., Aminu, S.M., Adamu Y. (1997): Urban and peri-urban horticulture in Kano, Nigeria. Natural Resources Institute: Chatham

Ponce-Hernandez, R., Marriott, F.H.C., Beckett, P.H.T., 1986. An improved method for reconstructing a soil profile from analyses of a small number of samples. Journal of Soil Science 37, 455–467.

Russell, J.S. andMoore, A.W. (1968). Comparison of different depth weightings in the numerical analysis of anisotropic soil profile data. Transactions of the 9th International Congress of Soil Science 4, 205–213.

Ryan, P., McKenzie, N., Oconnell, D., Loughhead, A., Lappert., P., Jaquier, D. Ashton, L. (2000): Intergrating forest soils information across scales: spatial prediction of soil properties under Australian forest. Ecology and management J 138: 139-157

Sweet, L. (1999). Room to live-Healthy cities for the urban century. IDRC Briefing. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC.

Tanko, A.I. (2003) Land Tenure Arrangements And Peasantry In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case In Northern Nigeria. Paper for Presentation at the Workshop on "Law and Poverty" organized jointly by the Social Science Academy of Nigeria and the Comparative Research Programme on Poverty (CROP) at Pioneer Technology, 4(1), 028 – 033.

UNDP (1987) Reclaimed water reuse in agriculture", Technical Report (in French), Vol. 1, 3rd Part, 69 p.+ annexes, Project RAB/80/011, Water Resources in the North African Countries, Rural Engineering Research Centre (Tunisia) - United Nations Development Program, May 1987.

Wakawa R. J, Uzairu A, Kagbu, J. A, Balarabe M. L. (2008): Impact assessment of effluent discharge on physicochemical parameters and some heavy metal concentrations in surface water of River Challawa Kano, Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Vol. 2 (10), pp. 100-106.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37, 29–38.


  • There are currently no refbacks.