PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF FLOUR AND STARCH FROM TWO VARIETIES OF TIGER-NUT (Cyperus esculentum)

A R ISMAILA, K A SOGUNLE, M S ABUBAKAR

Abstract


This research investigated the physicochemical and functional properties of flours and starches from two varieties of tiger nut (Yellow and Black). The flours and starches were produced using standard methods and subsequently analysed for proximate, functional, mineral and pasting characteristics. The proximate compositions showed that both YTF and BTF are high in crude oil (26.10 and 28.40%) and protein (7.90 and 10.25) but lower content in their starches ranged from 1.86 to 2.16% and 4.1 to 5.3 % for YSTN and BSTN respectively.  The minerals examined were Ca, Na, P, K, Fe, Zn and Cu.  The results showed YTF and BTF are high in Ca, Na, K  and P with values ranged from (156 to 142), (245 to 235), (216 to 255) and (120 to 118)mg/100g respectively. However, Zn, Fe and Cu are very low in the entire sample.  The bulk density of all the samples ranges from 0.59 to 0.63, while foam capacities also ranged from 2.29 to 10.91.  YSTN and BSTN have the higher bulk density than YTF and BTF while YTF and BTF foam capacities are higher than YSTN and BSTN.  The pasting characteristic of the samples showed YSTN and BSTN with high final viscosity (2768 and 2894) RVU with a peak temperature and time of 82.3oC and 6.3 min for BSTN. The characteristics of tiger nut flour and its starch showed a great nutrition and huge potential as an underutilized crop.


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