This study assesses rice farmers’ awareness of the effects of climate change in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 198 respondents from whom data were collected using questionnaires. Data were analysed using frequencies, percentages, means, Chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Majority of the respondents were between the ages of 30 and 59 years with an average age of 45 years. Majority were males (83.3%) and married (88.4%). Half of the respondents had formal education (50%). The mean household size, years of farming experience, farm size and yield/ha were 11 members, 18years, 1.72ha and 2.52 tons/ha respectively. Majority of the respondents were members of cooperative societies (85.9%) and had access to credit (81.8%). The study further revealed that majority of the respondents had extension contact (86.8%), and the prominent information sources were radio (84.2%), and extension agents (57.4%). On the overall, more than half (52.0%) of the respondents had high awareness of the effects of climate change while 48% had low awareness level. Insufficient farm credit, inadequate capital, high cost of raw materials, limited access to land and inadequate information on weather were the main constraints to adaptation to climate change. The inferential statistical analysis revealed that membership of cooperative society (χ2=5.163, p=0.023), access to information sources (χ2= 6.667, p=0.010), extension contact (χ2= 6.645, p=0.036) and level of education (χ2=8.708, p=0.030) were significantly associated with respondents’ level of awareness of the effects of climate change. Efforts should be made to sensitize farmers on the effects of climate change to improve their awareness level and the likelihood of adoption of adaptation measures. Efforts should also be made to provide early warning weather information to farmers. Policies should be formulated to ensure unhindered access to credit facilities by farmers.

Full Text:



Abdul-Gafar, A., Xu, S., Yu, W. and Wang, Y. (2017). Comparative studies on factors influencing rice yield in Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan China. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 6(1):15-25.

Abdullahi, A. Y., Atala, T. K., Ikani, E. I. and Ahmed, B. (2018). Impact of West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme on level of living among participating farmers in North-Western States, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 27th Annual National Congress of the Rural Sociological Association of Nigeria (RuSAN) held at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Between 8 and 11 October, 2018, pp 41-43

Abdul-Razak, M. and Kruse, S. (2017). The adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change in the Northern Region of Ghana. Climate Risk Management, 17 (2017): 104–122

Adebayo, I. (2018). Flood destroys 2100 rice farmlands in Kebbi. Daily Trust newspaper of 16th August, 2018. Accessed 14th June 2020 from

Adeleye, O., Atala, T. K., Akpoko, J. G. and Omolehin, R. A (2016). Membership of rice farmers associations and adoption of improved rice production technology in Kaduna and Kano States, North West Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. Vol.6, No.1. 21-28

Adesiji, G. B and Obaniyi, K. S. (2012). Indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation strategies among farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 17th Annual National Conference Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria held at University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria. 11th – 14th March, 2012, pp 81-88

Ahmadu, J. and Idisi, P. O. (2014). Gendered participation in cassava value chain in Nigeria. Merit Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Sciences, 2(11):147-153

Ajayi, M. T and Solomon, O. (2010) Influence of extension contact and farmers’ socio-economic characteristics on adoption of oil palm technologies in Aniocha north Local Government, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 12(2): 35-46

Akinnagbe, O. M., Onah C. P., Olaolu, M. O and Ajayi, A. R. (2012). Farmers’ perception of the impact of climate change on agricultural activities in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 17th Annual National Conference Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria, University of Nigeria Nsukka 11th – 14th March, 2012, pp 109-117

Alarima, C. I., Awotunde J. M., Adamu C. O., Akerele D., Masunaga T., Wakatsuki T. (2018). Adoption of Sawah Eco-technology in rice production by farm households in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Journal of Water and Land Development, 37(4-6): 11–17. DOI: 10.2478/jwld-2018-0020

Alhomoud, F. K., Basil, M. and Bondrev, A. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to dietary supplements among health sciences and non-health sciences students in one of the Universities of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research,-10(9): 5-9

Ali, S., Liu, Y., Ishaq, M., Shah, T., Abdullah, Ilyas, A., and Din, I. (2017). Climate change and its impact on the yield of major food crops: Evidence from Pakistan. Foods,6(6): 1-19. Available on

Apata, T. G. (2011a). Effects of global climate change on Nigerian agriculture: An empirical analysis. CBN Journal of Applied Statistics,2(1): 31-50.

Arimi, K. (2014). Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 115(2): 91–99

Audu, I. A., and Adie, L. A. (2018). Desertification in northern Nigeria: cause and consequences. The environmental studies, 1(2): 20-37

Awere, T. (2015). Nigerian flood destroy one and a half month of national rice supply. Bloomberg business new, 25th September, 2015. Accessed 14th June, 2020 from

Ben-Chendo, G. N., Lawal, N and Osuji M. N (2017). Cost and returns of paddy rice production in Kaduna State. European Journal of Agriculture and forestry Research, 5(3):41-48

BNRCC, (2011). Towards a National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action (NASPA) - A consultative document for stakeholder review and discussion draft. Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change (BNRCC) Project publication March, 2011. Pp. 7-69.

Bowley, A. L. (1926). Measurement of precision attained in sampling. Bulletin de l’Institut International de Statistique, 22(1): 1-62

Chukwuji, C. N., Tsafe, A. G., Sayudi, S., Yusuf, Z., and Zakariya, J. (2019). Awareness, access and utilization of information on climate change by farmers in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-Journal), 20106: 1-10. Available on http://digitalcom

Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Tekie, A. & Mahmud, Y. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19(2): 248-255. 2009.01.002

Elum, Z.A., Modise, D. M., and Marr, A. (2017). Farmer's perception of climate change andresponsive strategies in three selected provinces of South Africa. Clim. Risk Manag.,16: 246–257.

Fadairo, O. S., Olutegbe, N. S., and Tijani, A. M. (2015). Attitude of crop farmers towards e-wallet platform of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme for input delivery in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state. Journal of Agricultural Informatics. Vol. 6, No. 2: 62-77. doi: 10.17700/jai.2015.6.2.184

FAO. (2011). Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development: The state of food and agriculture. FAO, Rome, Italy. Available at /sofa/2010-11/en/

FAOSTAT, (2018) Nigeria at a glance. Accessed on 12th August, 2018 from

FMARD, (2016). The Agriculture Promotion Policy (2016 –2020): Building on the successes of the ATA, Closing Key Gaps -Policy and Strategy Document. Retrieved on 12/08/18 from

Gasperini, L (2000). From agricultural education to education for rural development and food security: All for education and food for all. Sustainable Development Department, Food and Agricultural Organisation.

Harmer, N and Rahman, S. (2014). Climate change response at the farm level: A review of farmers’ awareness and adaptation strategies in developing countries. Geography Compass, 8(11): 808–822.

Idoma, K., Ikpe, E., Ejeh, L and Mamman, M (2017). Farmers’ adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on rice production: insight from Benue State, Nigeria. Environment and Ecology Research 5(4): 289-301. DOI: 10.13189/eer.2017.050406

Idrisa, Y. L., Ogunbameru, B. O., Ibrahim, A. A. and Bawa, D. B (2012). Analysis of awareness and adaptation to climate change among farmers in the Sahel savannah agro-ecological zone of Borno State, Nigeria. British Journal of Environment & Climate Change, 2(2): 216-226.

Ijogu, B. J. (2016). Comparative analysis of system of rice intensification and traditional system of rice production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria. European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. 4 (2), .9-23

IPCC, (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Kadiri, F. A., Eze, C. C., Orebiyi, J. S., Lemchi, J. I., Ohajianya, D. O and Nwaiwu, I. U. (2014). Technical efficiency in paddy rice production in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(2): 33-43

Kolleh, J. B and Jones, T. M (2018). Rice farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation strategies in the Ketu North District, Volta Region of Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(15):782-791.

Lybbert, T and Sumner, D. (2010). Agricultural technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries: Policy options for innovation and technology diffusion. ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, ATS Policy Brief 6.

Maji, A. T., Shaibu, A. A., Ibrahim. P. A., Awotide, Nwilene, B., F., Ayinzat, F., Shehu, B., Ojehomon, V., Kura, Y., Asu-Obi, M. and Danbaba, N (2012). Emergency rice initiative: Socioeconomic analysis of rice farmers in Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(46): 6150-6157. Available online at

Mason, T., Trochez, C., Thomas, R., Babar, M., Hesso, I and Kayyali, R. (2018). Knowledge and awareness of the general public and perception of pharmacists about antibiotic resistance. BMC Public Health 18(711): 1-10.

Mesfin, A. H., and Bekele, A. (2018). Farmers Perception on Climate Change and Determinants of Adaptation Strategies in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State of Ethiopia. International Journal of Food System Dynamics, 9 (5): 453-469. DOI: 461/ijfsd.v9i5.956

Michigan State University (MSU) and IFPRI (2017). Promoting rice productivity in Kebbi State: Linking Data and Policy.

Mustafa, G., Ismail A. L., Muhammad, K. B., Mad, N. S. and Wan Mohamed N. W. (2018): Determinants of farmers' awareness of climate change, Applied Environmental Education and Communication, DOI: 10.1080/1533015X.2018.1454358

Mustapha, M. B., Yusuf, B. I and Ibrahim, K (2018). Determinants of yield among rice farmers: evidence from Fadama III AF Project Intervention in Sokoto State. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 9(6): 81-87

National Bureau of Statistics [NBS], (2017). Demographic Statistics Bulletin. Available on

Niles, M. T., and Mueller, N.D. (2016). Farmer perceptions of climate change: associations with observed temperature and precipitation trends, irrigation, and climate beliefs. Global Environ. Change, 39: 133–142.

Nyengere, J. K., Mwase, W., Njoloma, J &Nyoka, B. I. (2016).Socio-economic factors affecting adoption of climate smart agriculture technologies in Malawi. RUFORUM Working Document Series No. 14(3), 335-339. Fifth RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference 17 - 21 October 2016, Cape Town, South Africa. Available from

Odjugo, P. A. (2010). General Overview of Climate Change Impacts in Nigeria. Journal Human Ecology, 29(1): 47-55.

Ogundele, O. O and Okoruwa, V. (2006). Technical efficiency differentials in rice production technologies in Nigeria. African Economic Research Consortium. Research paper 154 Available from: [accessed May 19 2018].

Ojuederie, O. B., Ogunsola K. E. (2017). Impact of Climate Change on Food Security and Its Mitigation Using Modern Biotechnology. Advance Biotech & Micro, 3(1): 555-601. http://doi:10.19080/AIBM.2017.03.555601004

Oni, O. A., Salimonu, K. K and Idowu. B. O. (2011). Social capital dimension and food security among farming households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of American Science, 7(8): 776-785.

Orifah, M. O. and Fadairo, O. S. (2015). Responsiveness to Vitamin A Garri Technology among Selected Stakeholders along the Value Chain in Oyo State, Nigeria. Ozean Journal of Social Science 8(2), 79-108

Quan, J. and Dyer, N. (2008). Climate change and land tenure: The implications of climate change for land tenure and land policy. Land Tenure Working Paper 2, FAO, Rome. P. 21

Roasoft (2004). Roasoft sample size calculator. Roasoft, incorporation, Seattle. Available on

Saleh, M. K. and Oyinbo, O. (2017). Rice production under different weed management technologies adopted by rice farmers in Katsina State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 21(1): 151-156.

Sania, S., Fatima, H. and Khan, M. A. (2017). Technical efficiency analysis of rice production in Pakistan under dry and puddle conditions: A case study of selected Districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 33(3): 447-458. /10.17582/journal.sja/2017/33.3.447.458

Schattman, R. E., Conner, D., and Méndez, V. E. (2016). Farmer perceptions of climate change risk and associated on-farm management strategies in Vermont, northeastern United States. Elem. Sci. Anthr. 4, 000131.

Singh, R. K., Zander, K. K., Kumar, S., Singh, A., Sheoran, P., Kumar, A., Hussain, S. M., Riba, T., Rallen, O., Lego, Y. J., Padung, E., Garnett, S. T. (2017). Perceptions of climate variability and livelihood adaptations relating to gender and wealth among the Adi community of the Eastern Indian Himalayas. Appl. Geogr., 86: 41–52. .1016/J.APGEOG.2017.06.018.

UNESCO (2000). Gender sensitivity. Available at /001304/130428e.pdf

Wali, S. U., Abubakar, S. D., Dankani, I. M., Gada, M. A. (2018). Distribution of public water supply: Analysis of population density and water supply in Kebbi Stare, Northwestern Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 3(4): 36-55. Doi:10.5281/zendo .2070313.


  • There are currently no refbacks.