N Y Tukur, G Y Jamala, B Ahmad


A proto-type solar powered kiln was constructed and evaluated at Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria.  The dimension of the wood used as the outer and inner walls were ½ and ¼ inch respectively. The inner part of the kiln was painted black for heat to serve as the solar absorber for the system. The kiln was constructed and the roof was glass of 5mm thickness.  A total number of 18 wood samples were used for the evaluation of the solar kiln from three different wood species (Khaya ivorensis, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Milicia excelsa). The wood samples were sourced from Akure, Ondo State and wood were machined and trimmed to the size of 20 mm X 20 mm X 300 mm. The wood samples were replicated three times in the solar kiln and under shed, their consecutive weights were taken. Evaluation was done between the experimental results of solar kiln and natural air drying. The results showed that the wood dried using the solar powered kiln attained the lowest moisture content of 19.77 %, while those under shed have 27.40 % moisture content. With regards to species, the moisture content obtained were 22.87 %, 23.08% and 24.87% accordingly. The drying rate was also compared, in which the lowest moisture content was obtained in 144hrs, followed by 96 and 48hrs (21.97 % and 30.67 %) respectively. It can be concluded that solar powered kiln dryer dries wood faster than Air drying method. .However, other heat generating, absorption and retention materials should be incorporated to the solar kiln design in subsequent researches

Full Text:



Abaje, I. B. (2007). Introduction to soils and vegetation. Kafanchan: Personal Touch Productions Amoo-Onidundu, O. N., Ajala, O.O and Adejoba, A.L (2016): Evaluation of final moisture content (FMC), drying rate (DR), moisture content gradient (MCG) and drying defects of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Wood dried in a solar-powered kiln. Proceedings of the 5th Biennial National Conference of the Forests and Forests Products Society. Pp 401-407

Andersson, M., Persson, L. Sjöholm, M. and Svanberg S. (2006). Spectroscopic studies of wood drying processes, Optics Express, 14 (8), 36413653.

Bond, Brian; Espinoza, Omar; Araman, Philip (2011). Design and operation of a solar- heated dry kiln for tropical latitudes. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-134. Asheville, NC: U.S.

Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P14.

Diego Miguel Elustondo1, Luiz Oliveira (2009). Model to assess energy consumption in industrial lumber kilns. Journal ISSN 0717-3644 ISSN online 0718-221X, Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología 11(1): 33-46, 2009

Emmanuel Tete Okoh (2014), Water Absorption Properties of Some Tropical Timber Species. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. Vl. 3, No. 2, pp. 20-24.10.11648/j.jenr.20140302.12

Forsman, S. (2008), Heat treated wood - the concept house development, Master's thesis, Lulea University of Technology.

Gan, K.S. and Choo, K.T. (2001): Simulation of a Solar Timber Dryer: in Proceedings of the 2nd Asian-Oceania Drying Conference ADC 01, Batu Fernghi, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 20-23 August 2001. Pp 727-734.

Haque, M. N., and Langrish, T.A.G. (2003). Mathematical modelling of solar kilns for drying Timber: Model development and validation. Drying Technology, 21(3), 457-477.

Joseph, D, Eugene M.W & Simpson W. T. (2000). Drying Hardwood Lumber. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-118. Madison, WI: United state department of Agriculture, Forest service, forest products laboratory. 138p.

Khalil, E.J; Al-Juamily, Khalifa, N; and Yassen, T.A. (2007) Testing of the performance of a fruit and vegetable solar drying system in Iraq. Journal of Desalination. 209: 163– 170

Ogunsanwo, O. Y. and Amoo-Onidundu, O.N. (2011): Selected drying characteristics of plantation grown Gmelina arborea under an experimental solar drying kiln. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 11, No. 2.pp 128-138.

Owoyemi J. M, Olaniran OS & Aliyu D. I (2013). Effect of Density on the Natural Resistance of Ten Selected Nigeria Wood Species to Subterranean Termites. Proligno Journal. Vol; 9. Pg. 32-40.

Owoyemi, J. M., Oyebamiji W. O., Aladejana J. T. (2015), Drying Characteristics of Three Selected Nigerian Indigenous Wood Species Using Solar Kiln Dryer and Air Drying Shed. American Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2015, pp. 176-182.

Poncsak, S., D. Ko caefe, R. Younsi, Y. Ko caefe, and L. Gastonguay (2009), Thermal treatment of electrical poles, Wood Sci Technol, 471-486

Rajendra, K. C. (2007). An introduction to wood drying. Forestry Nepal

Sowunmi O, O (2015). Performance of Solar Kiln Dryer on Two Selected Wood Species in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Bachelor degree project, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

Standard Australia (2000). Timber - Classification into Strength Groups. Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 2878. Sydney. 36p.

Stamm, A. J (1964). Wood and cellulose science. Ronald Press, New York, NY, 509p

Tageldin H. N, Elamin E. E, Tagelsir E. M (2013), Effectiveness of Timber Solar Dryers in Reducing Drying Time and Drying Defects in Comparison to Air Drying. Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14 Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (JAVS No. 1) homepage: http://

Tukur, R., Garba, k. A., Abdulrashid, I., and Murtala, R. (2013) Indigenous Trees inventory and their Multipurpose Uses in Dutsin-Ma Area Katsina State. European Scientific Journal 9(11), 288-300.


  • There are currently no refbacks.