The study was carried out to determine the influence of dietary supplementation of commercial probiotic, Bactofort® on growth, haematological parameters and survival of Clariasgariepinus fingerlings raised in plastic tanks. The experiment was conducted for two months (61days) at the Fisheries laboratory, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University Dutsin-Ma. One hundred and twenty fingerlings of C. gariepinus with average weight of 11.3 g, were weighed and randomly distributed into four treatment groups consisting of twelve plastic tanks as follows: T0, which is the control group with no probiotic inclusion; T1, T2 and T3, representing 1, 2 and 3g of probiotic (Bactofort®) supplementation respectively. All treatments were in triplicates. Fish were fed to satiation two times daily, seven days a week (morning 8.00am and evening 5.00pm).  The growth performance (Final Mean Weight, Mean Weight Gain, Percentage Mean Weight Gain, and Specific Growth Rate) and nutrients utilization (Mean Protein Intake, Feed Conversion Ratio and Protein Efficiency Ratio) of C. gariepinus fingerlings in all probiotic treated groups of Bactofort®increased relative to the control group. The best growth performance was obtained using Bactofort®at 3g/kg dietary supplementation. Haematological parameters (Haematocrit, Haemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Count, Red Blood Cell Count, White Blood Cell Count, Heterophils, Lymphocytes, and Eosinophils) were enhanced in comparison with the control. Percentage survival during the research period, ranged from 76.67 - 86.67% in all probiotic treated groups in comparison to 53.33% recorded in the control. In conclusion, administration of Bactofort®, increased growth performance, nutrient utilization, haematological parameters and survival of C. gariepinus fingerlings. Bactofort® is recommended for inclusion in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet at 3g/kg.

Full Text:



A. O. A. C. (1990). Official Methods of analysis. (15thEdn. K. Holdrick. Editor). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Virginia, U. S. A.

Abdel-Tawwab, M.,Azza, M., Abdel-Rahman, N. and Ismael, E.M. (2008). Evaluation of commercial live bakers’ yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a growth andimmunity promoter for Fry Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus (L.) challenged in situwith Aeromonashydrophila. Aquaculture; 280: 185–189

Al-Dohail, M.A., Roshada, H. and Aliyu-Paiko, M. (2009). Effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus, on the growth performance, haematology parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in AfricanCatfish (Clariasgariepinus,Burchell 1822) fingerlings; Aquaculture Research, 40: 1642 -1652.

Aluwong, T., Kawu, M., Raji, M., Dzenda, T., Govwang, F., Sinkalu, V and Ayo, J. (2013). Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens. Antioxidants 2, 326-339 doi: 10.3390/antiox2040326

Aly, S.M., Abdel-Galil, A.Y., Abdel-Aziz, G. A. and Mohamed, M. F. (2008b). Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of tilapia nilotica (Oreochromisniloticus) to challenge infections. Fish & Shell fish Immunology. 25:128–136.

APP (2016). The Agriculture Promotion Policy (2016 – 2020). Building on the successes of the ATA, Closing Key Gaps. Policy and Strategy Document: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Abuja. 59p

Ayoola, S.O., Ajani, E.K and Fashae, O.F. (2013). Effect of Probiotics (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) on Growth Performance and Hematological Profile of ClariasgariepinusJuveniles. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 5 (1), 01-08.

Azarin, H., Aramli, M.S., Imanpour, M.R. and Mina, R. (2015). Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilusfrisiikutum) Fry.Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 7: 31.

Badiru, B.A. (2005).Water quality management in Aquaculture and Freshwater zooplankton production for hatcheries. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries, New Bussa, Niger State. Pp 2- 9

Balogun, J.K.S.,Abdullahi, A.S.,Auta, J. and Ogunlade, O.P. (2004). Feed Conversion, Protein Efficiency, Digestibility and Growth Performance of Oreochromisniloticus fed Delinixregia seed meal. Proceeding of the National Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON). Lagos, Nigeria. Pp. 838 – 842.

Banerjee, G., Ray, A.K., Askarian, F. and Ringø, E. (2013). Characterization and identification of enzyme-producing autochthonous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of two Indian air-breathing fish. Beneficial Microbes 4: 277–284.

Blaxhall, P.C. and Daisley, K.W. (1973). Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology, 5 771-781.

Bolorunduro, P. I. (2016). Fisheries Extension Service in Nigeria: The Good, The Bad, The Ugly and The Way forward. An Inaugural Lecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 74p

Boyd, C. E. and Lichtkoppler, F. (1979). Water quality management in ponds fish culture. Research and Development Series, No. 22. International Centre for Aquaculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn Alabama pp.

Cha, J.H., Rahimnejad, S., Yang, S.Y., Kim, K.W. and Lee, K.J. (2013). Evaluations of Bacillus spp. as dietary additives on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistanceof olive flounder (Paralichthysolivaceus) against Streptococcus iniaeand as wateradditives. Aquaculture 402: 50-57.

Dacie, J. V. and Lewis, S. M. (2011). Practical haematology, Elsevier Limited. – 11th edition.

Ehab, R. El-Haroun. (2007). Improved Growth Rate and Feed Utilization in Farmed African Catfish Clariasgariepinus (Burchel, 1822) Through a Growth Promoter Biogen® Supplementation. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science; 2 (5), 319 – 327

Francisca, G., Akinwale, A., Adeoluwa, A. and Oluwatoyin, A. (2016). Development and Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Local Probiotic in Comparison with a Commercial Probiotic in the African Catfish, Clariasgariepinus. Covenant University Press. ISSN: 2449-075X

Klaenhammer, T. D. and Kullen, M.J. (1999). Selection and design of probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50:45-57.doi:10.1016/S0168-1605 (1605 (99)00076-8

Laleh, Y.G., Mohammad, E.J.Z. and Milad, Adel. (2015).The Study on Effect of Temperature Stress on Occurrence of Clinical Signs Caused by Aeromonashydrophila in Capoetadamascina in In-Vitro Condition. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3(7), 406-412.

Lara-Flores, M. L., Olvera-Novoa, M. A., Gruzman-Mendez, B. E. and Lopez-Madrid, W. (2003): Use of the Bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus). Aquaculture. 216: 193-201.

Macey, B. M and Coyne, V. E. (2005). Improved Growth Rate and Disease Resistance in FarmedHaliotismidaethrough Probiotics Treatment. Marine Biotechnology; 245(1-4)249-261.

Mohammad. B. M., Roshada, H., Mohammad S., Abdul, M. and Siti, A. M. (2016). Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence on Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channastriata) Fingerlings. Tropical Life Sciences Research 27(2): 111–125.

Ponzoni, R.W. and Nguyen, N.H. (eds). (2008). Proceedings of a Workshop on the Development of a Genetic Improvement Program for African catfish Clariasgariepinus. World Fish Center Conference Proceedings Number 1889. The World Fish Center, Penang, Malaysia. 130 p.

Prabu, E., Felix, S., Felix, N.,Ahilan, B. and Ruby, P. (2017). An overview on significance of fish nutrition in aquaculture industry. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 5(6): 349-355

Ray, A.K., Ghosh, K. and Ringo, E. (2012). Enzyme producing bacteria isolated from fish gut. A review Aquaculture nutrition 18; 465 – 492

Saini, V.P., Ojha, M. L., Gupta, M. C., Preeti, N., Amrata, S. and Vikas, L. (2014). Effect of Dietary Probiotic on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance in Labeorohita(Ham.) Fingerlings.International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Society; 1(6), 07-11

Santin, E., Maiorka, A., Macari, M., Grecco, M., Sanchez, J. C., Okada, T. M. andMyasaka, A.M. (2001).Performance and intestinal mucosa development of broiler chickens fed diets containingSaccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Journal ofApplied Poultry Research; 10, 236–244.

Simon, O., Vahjen, W and Scharek, L. (2003). Microorganisms as Feed Additive-Probiotics. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 14–17(1), 295–318.

Shola, G. S., Gabriel, A. A, and Gabriel, E. I. (2017). Performance of ClariasgariepinusFed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. Volume 2017, Article ID 8936060,

Stones, C. S and Mills, D.V. (2004). The use of live yeast and yeast culture products in aquaculture. International Aquafeed; 7 (5), 28-34.

Tanwar, J., Das, S., Fatima, Z. and Hameed, S. (2014). Multidrug resistance: an emerging crisis. Interdisciplinary Perspectives Infectious Diseases;

Tovar-Ramırez, D., Zambonino, I. J., Cahu, C., Gatesoupe, F.J. and Vazquez-Juarez, R. (2004). Influence of dietary live yeast on European sea bass (Dicentrarchuslabrax) larval development. Aquaculture, 234: 415–427. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.01.028.

Yoshida, T., Kruger, R. and Inglis, V. (1995). Augmentation of nonspecific protection in African catfish, Clariasgariepinus(Burchell), by the long-term oral administration of immunostimulants. Journal of Fish Disease, 18(2), 195-198. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.1995.tb00278.x


  • There are currently no refbacks.